GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION OF TURKEY
Turkey territories, located between 36 – 42 Northern parallels and 26 – 45 Eastern meridians in the northern hemisphere, is situated on Asian and European continents. Turkey territories, located in Asian continent, are called Anatolia and its territories, located in European continent, are called Thrace. Anatolia is a Greek Word and means “eastern country”, “the place where sun rises”. Furthermore , Anatolia was called “Asia Minor” in the antique age. Istanbul and Çanakkale Straits and Sea of Marmara divide territories of the country into two parts. Moreover, three sides of the country are surrounded with Black Sea, Aegean Sea and Mediterranean Sea. Its surface area is 776 723 square kilometers and population of the country is about 72 millions.
It is a mosaic with folk, composed of various ethnical origin people such as Turkish, Kurdish, Armenian, Greek, Arabian, Bosnian, Georgian, Laz, Circassian, Albanian, Azerbaijani, Chechen etc. Although vast majority of peoples are Muslim, there are also people, believing in Christian and Jewish religion. Its capital city is Ankara. Republic of Turkey is a democratic, laic, social law state.
It is bordered with Georgia, Armenia, Nakhichevan(Azerbaijan) and Iran in the east; Syria and Iraq in the south; Greece and Bulgaria countries in the West.
Turkey is divided into seven geographical regions. Marmara Region, located on two continents, is a region which has moderate altitudes in terms of surface features. It has productive lowlands such as Bursa, Sakarya, Ergene. Sun flower, olive, tobacco, grape, rice, corn, are the means of living for people. Region is the most developed region of Turkey in terms of economy.
Its climate is hot and arid in summer and mild and rainy in winter. Mountains run perpendicular to the sea in Aegean Region and shores are very recessed and protrusive. Bakırçayı, Gediz, Küçük Menderes and Büyük Menderes rivers irrigate the productive lowlands, on which they pass. Grape, fig, cotton, olive, tobacco, are the means of living for people. Region’s climate is hot and arid in summer and mild rainy in winter.
Taurus Mountains, located in the Mediterrannean Region, run parallel to the sea; there are productive lowlands such as Antalya, Çukurova and Amik. Its climate is hot and arid in summer and mild and rainy in winter. Its vegetation cover is composed of maquis and forests. Cotton, citrus fruits, banana, and vegetable production are the means of living of people. Greenhousing is very developed.
Antalya and its surroundings are in the position of tourism center.
Central Anatolia Region is covered with steppes. Agriculture and animal breeding are the means of living of people.
Kızılırmak, the longest river of Turkey, reaches to Black Sea archly within the region. Konya lowland, which is the biggest lowland and wheat silo of Turkey, and Salt Lake, which is the second biggest lake, are located in this region. This region is moderate mountainy and its climate is hot and arid in summer and cold in winter and it has a continental climate.
Northern Anatolian Mountains, located in Black Sea Region, run parallel to the sea. There are productive Çarşamba and Bafra lowlands in the coasts, where Kızılırmak and Yeşilırmak rivers reach to the sea. Eastern Black Sea Region is usually rainy in every season. Mountains are covered with forests.
Tea, corn, hazelnut, tobacco are the means of living of people.
Eastern Anatolia Region is the mountainiest region of the country and is composed of high mountains and plateaus.
Mount Ararat, the highest mountain of Turkey and Lake Van, the biggest lake, are located in this region. Fırat and Dicle Rivers go out from this region and reach to the sea outside boundaries of the country. Its climate is hot in summer and cold in winter and it has a continental climate.
Agriculture and animal breeding are the means of living of people. Agriculture and animal breeding are the means of living of people in Southeastern Anatolia Region, which is the Region of Dams. Wheat, lentil, cotton, pistachio, grape are the main agricultural products. Main oil reservoirs of Turkey are located in this region. This region is moderate moutainy and its climate is hot in summer and cold in winter.